Summary and Conclusions

This module has discussed the benefits and risks of several agricultural biotechnologies, including GM crops, biopharming, and xenotransplantation. It has also addressed the “dual-use dilemmas” associated with the use of plant pathogens as biocontrol agents.

What can/should scientists do to address these issues? Where can we start introducing these new approaches? - Jacqueline Fletcher

Scientists working in the field of agricultural biotechnology should become aware of these risk and benefits, as well as their professional responsibility to ensure that their research is applied only for the benefit of humankind and not to cause harm.